Conceitos e Definições

Ficheiro (File): O que é?

Publicado a 05/12/2018, 13:37 por Luis Pitta -org-   [ atualizado a 05/12/2018, 13:41 ]


A file is an object on a computer that stores data, information, settings, or commands used with a computer program. In a GUI (graphical user interface), such as Microsoft Windows, files display as icons that relate to the program that opens the file. For example, the picture is an icon associated with Adobe Acrobat PDF files. If this file was on your computer, double-clicking the icon in Windows would open that file in Adobe Acrobat or the PDF reader installed on the computer.

How are files created?

A file is created using a software program on the computer. For example, to create a text file you would use a text editor, to create an image file you would use an image editor, and to create a document you would use a word processor.

Where are files stored?

Computer files are stored on a drive (e.g., the hard drive), disc, (e.g., DVD), and a diskette (e.g., floppy disk) and may also be contained in a folder (directory) on that medium.

File management

Microsoft Windows computer the user can manage and organize their files by using Windows Explorer and Apple users can use the Finder.

As operações mais coumuns que se podem fazer a ficheiros incluem a sua listagem, copia, aleração de lugar, renomeação e eliminação.

File extensions and file types

File list in explorer with name and file extension

There are millions of files used with computers today and are identified either by the file extension of the file or the data contained in the file. For example, in the picture of Windows Explorer above is the "Regedit.exe" file. "Regedit" is the name of the file and ".exe" is the file extension that identifies the file as an executable file. The next file "RtlExUpd.dll" is a DLL file and another example of a file.

In new versions of Windows, the file extensions are hidden by default. If the file extensions are hidden, you can also get a general understanding of the type of file by looking at the Type column. In the above example, the "Regedit.exe" file is an "Application" and the "RtlExUpd.dll" file is an "Application extension."

Illegal file characters

With most operating systems, the below characters are considered illegal and cannot be used. Trying to create a file with these characters in the file name would generate an error or make the file inaccessible.

\ / : * ? " < > |

Note: Also, many operating systems including Windows has reserved words that can also not be included in a file name. 


3G vs 4G

Publicado a 03/01/2018, 03:47 por Luis Pitta -org-   [ atualizado a 03/01/2018, 04:22 ]

O que é o 3G?

O G é de Generation, ou seja são as Gerações de cada tecnologia de comunicação móvel (telemovel): 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, 5G, etc.
De todas as novidades de cada nova versão trás, para o utilizador final, a mais importante é a velocidade de recepção e envio de dados na Internet.

A 3ª geração (ou seja 3G) surge em 2001 e veio introduzir a ideia do "Mobile Broadband".
Velocidade de acesso à Internet de 384Kbps (hoje as velocidades do 3G são de 500Kbps ou mais)

O que é o 4G (ou LTE)?

Suege em 2009 e desde 2015 que a maioria dos telemóveis permitem funcionar a 4G.
A área onde vivemos terá de ter uma rede que já permita o 4G para atingirmos maiores velocidades de download e principalmente de upload.
Velocidade de acesso à Internet: 10 x mais rápida que o 3G
Velocidade típica de acesso à Internet: 25Mbps a 50 Mbps
A tecnologias 4G - LTE atinge velocidades de transferência de 300Mbps

Qual a diferença?

Para voz as comunicações funcionam normalmente a 3G
Para transferir dados, caso o telefone e a rede o permitam, conseguimos melhorias de velocidade enormes quando utilizamos o 4G.

Ver velocidades nos diversos países do mundo: https://opensignal.com/reports/2016/11/state-of-lte

Para quando o 5G?

No ano de 2020. Estamos quase lá!

Historia / Siglas

  • 1G = analog
  • 2G = digital, voice
  • 2.5G added data (GPRS)
  • 2.75G faster data (EDGE)
  • 3G = digital, supported data, packet switched (WCDMA, EvDO)
  • 3.5G faster data (HSPA)
  • 4G = wireless broadband (most people say this is LTE, some people are waiting for an upgrade to LTE-A)
  • 5G = not yet defined Much faster. Likely to be real ~2020

Alguns videos






Historia da Multimedia

Publicado a 16/12/2017, 05:53 por Luis Pitta -org-   [ atualizado a 16/12/2017, 05:56 ]

A historia da multimedia é um somatório de:
  • Visionaries: From the ingenious idea of the programmable computer, trace the innovations of the outstanding thinkers that had a direct impact on the explosion of the technological age.
  • Text, Processing and Software: Inventions and innovations that spawned the development of software enabling computers to move from mathematical processing to technology that creates and delivers multi media.
  • Computers: From the printing press through the exclusive military and academic and corporate worlds trace computer development into the ubiquitous role of the desktop personal computer of today.
  • Audio & Communication: From the telegraph signal to cellular telephones, follow the development from signal transmission to digital transmission of voice.
  • Video & Animation: From manually manipulated negative film and hand drawn sketches, video and animation develops to sophisticated digital creation and rendering of motion.


Retirado de: http://people.ucalgary.ca/~edtech/688/hist.htm em 12out2016


Tecnologia e Educação: O papel do Professor (EN)

Publicado a 05/12/2017, 03:24 por Luis Pitta -org-   [ atualizado a 05/12/2017, 03:41 ]





Veritasium is a channel of science and engineering videos featuring experiments, expert interviews, cool demos, and discussions with the public about everything science.

Clips featured in this video:

Ficheiros, pastas e páginas

Publicado a 24/11/2017, 04:50 por Luis Pitta -org-   [ atualizado a 05/12/2018, 13:37 ]

Dicas para arrumar ficheiros, pastas e páginas


1. Ficheiros (de qualquer tipo, incluindo PDFs)


Devem  ter um nome descritivo completo, incluindo, o numero da PT, o nome do aluno, a versão do ficheiro, etc.
Devem ser carregados para o DRIVE

Exceções:

Fotografias
Devem ser carregados para o Google Fotos
(Podem também ser carregados no DRIVE)

Videos
Devem ser carregados no Youtube
(Para preservar as suas características podem também ser carregados no DRIVE)


2. Google DRIVE: É o "armazém" da nossa loja


No DRIVE devemos criar Pastas, muitas pastas.
A organização das Pastas é hierárquica. Seja arrumado, mova as pastas se for preciso. 
O nome das pastas deve ser descritivo para se entender qual o seu conteúdo sem precisarmos de a abrir.

No drive não existem páginas!


3. Google SITEs: É a "montra" da nossa loja


No Google SITEs criamos páginas de informação.
Devemos criar muitas páginas. Por iso é que há um atalho: letra c.
A organização das páginas é hierárquica.

Alterar o nome da pagina não altera o seu endereço URL, por isso:
  • O nome das páginas deve ser curto no momento da criação. 
  • Depois de guardarmos a 1ª vez, devemos editar a página e alterar o seu nome para ser mais descritivo.
Devemos entender qual o seu conteúdo sem precisarmos de a abrir.




A técnica "KISS"

Publicado a 19/11/2017, 05:53 por Luis Pitta -org-   [ atualizado a 09/05/2018, 07:24 ]

A técnica "KISS" resume-se a entender a sua sigla que quer dizer:

Keep It Simple, Sir


Outra variações utilizadas:

Keep It Stupid Simple
Keep It Sweet & Simple
Keep it Short & Simple
Keep it Simple, Silly


Não confundir com a banda Rock que surgiu no inicio dos anos 70: KISS!


Mais informação em:


Variants[edit]

The principle most likely finds its origins in similar minimalist concepts, such as Occam's razorLeonardo da Vinci's "Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication", Mies Van Der Rohe's "Less is more", Bjarne Stroustrup's "Make Simple Tasks Simple!", or Antoine de Saint Exupéry's "It seems that perfection is reached not when there is nothing left to add, but when there is nothing left to take away". Colin Chapman, the founder of Lotus Cars, urged his designers to "Simplify, then add lightness". Heath Robinson machines and Rube Goldberg's machines, intentionally overly-complex solutions to simple tasks or problems, are humorous examples of "non-KISS" solutions. Also Shakespeare's "Brevity is the soul of wit".

An alternative view — "Make everything as simple as possible, but not simpler" — is attributed to Albert Einstein, although this may be an editor's paraphrase of a lecture he gave.[8]

A variant used in marketing is "keep it simple and straightforward".[5]

In film animation[edit]

Master animator Richard Williams explains the KISS principle in his book The Animator's Survival Kit, and Disney's Nine Old Men write about it in Disney Animation: The Illusion of Life, a considerable work of the genre. The problem faced is that inexperienced animators may "over-animate" in their works, that is, a character may move too much and do too much. Williams urges animators to "KISS".




E ainda... KISS aplicada à programação

What does KISS stand for?

The KISS is an abbreviation of Keep It Stupid Simple or Keep It Simple, Stupid

What does that mean?

This principle has been a key, and a huge success in my years of software engineering. A common problem among software engineers and developers today is that they tend to over complicate problems.

Typically when a developer is faced with a problem, they break it down into smaller pieces that they think they understand and then try to implement the solution in code. I would say 8 or 9 out of 10 developers make the mistake that they don't break down the problem into small enough or understandable enough pieces. This results in very complex implementations of even the most simple problems, another side effect is spagetthi code, something we tought only BASIC would do with its goto statements, but in Java this results in classes with 500-1000 lines of code, methods that each have several hundreds of lines.
This code clutter is a result of the developer realizing exception cases to his original solution while he is typing in code. These exception cases would have solved if the developer had broken down the problem further.

How will I benefit from KISS

  • You will be able to solve more problems, faster.
  • You will be able to produce code to solve complex problems in fewer lines of code
  • You will be able to produce higher quality code
  • You will be able to build larger systems, easier to maintain
  • You're code base will be more flexible, easier to extend, modify or refactor when new requirements arrive
  • You will be able to achieve more than you ever imagined
  • You will be able to work in large development groups and large projects since all the code is stupid simple

How can I apply the KISS principle to my work

There are several steps to take, very simple, but could be challenging for some. As easy as it sounds, keeping it simple, is a matter of patience, mostly with yourself.

  • Be Humble, don't think of yourself as a super genius, this is your first mistake
    By being humble, you will eventually achieve super genius status =), and even if you don't, who cares! your code is stupid simple, so you don't have to be a genius to work with it.
  • Break down your tasks into sub tasks that you think should take no longer than 4-12 hours to code
  • Break down your problems into many small problems. Each problem should be able to be solved within one or a very few classes
  • Keep your methods small, each method should never be more than 30-40 lines. Each method should only solve one little problem, not many uses cases
    If you have a lot of conditions in your method, break these out into smaller methods.
    Not only will this be easier to read and maintain, but you will find bugs a lot faster.
    You will learn to love Right Click+Refactor in your editor.
  • Keep your classes small, same methodology applies here as we described for methods.
  • Solve the problem, then code it. Not the other way around
    Many developers solve their problem while they are coding, and there is nothing wrong doing that. As a matter of fact, you can do that and still adhere to the above statement.
    If you have the ability to mentally break down things into very small pieces, then by all means, do that while you are coding. But don't be afraid of refactor your code over and over and over and over again. Its the end result that counts, and number of lines is not a measurement, unless you measure that fewer is better of course.
  • Don't be afraid to throw away code. Refactoring and recoding are two very important areas. As you come across requirements that didn't exist, or you weren't aware of when you wrote the code to begin with you might be able to solve the old and the new problems with an even better solution. 
    If you had followed the advice above, the amount of code to rewrite would have been minimal, and if you hadn't followed the advice above, then the code should probably be rewritten anyway.
  • And for all other scenarios, try to keep it as simple as possible, this is the hardest behavior pattern to apply to, but once you have it, you'll look back and will say, I can't imagine how I was doing work before.

Are there any examples of the KISS principle

There are many, and I will look for some really great one to post here. But I will leave you with the following thought:

Some of the world's greatest algorithms are always the ones with the fewest lines of code. And when we go through the lines of code, we can easily understand them. The innovator of that algorithm, broke down the problem until it was so easy to understand that he/she could implement it. 
Many great problem solvers were not great coders, but yet they produced great code!

Retirado do site: http://people.apache.org/~fhanik/kiss.html em 19out2016


Memória Descritiva: O que é?

Publicado a 13/10/2017, 04:08 por Luis Pitta -org-   [ atualizado a 08/11/2018, 04:49 ]

O que é a Memória Descritiva?

No contexto das nossas Proposta de Trabalho (PTs) realizadas nas aulas, a Memória Descritiva deve contar a "história" do trabalho,
ou seja é o seu processo de construção desde o momento inicial até ao(s) produto(s) final(is) construido(s). 

Este tipo de Memória Descritiva deve ser organizada nos seguintes tópicos:

1. Dar algumas indicações sobre o processo criativo: Como surgiu a ideia de fazer desta maneira e não de outra qualquer; O que nos inspirou?; etc.

2. As etapas iniciais de preparação do trabalho: Preparação e instalação de software; Equipamento utilizado; Constrangimentos; etc.

3. A execução do trabalho propriamente dito, com identificação dos passos:
  • mais interessantes;
  • mais difíceis;
  • que deram mais trabalho;
  • que teve de pedir ajuda;
  • etc.
4. Como fomos resolvendo os problemas encontrados: na aula, com os colegas, com ajuda de videos didaticos do Youtube, etc...

5. As decisões tomadas ao longo do trabalho;

6. Uma conclusão final livre, onde deve ser incluída:
  • o que mais gostámos de elaborar: com apresentação de printscreen(s) devidamento legendados e com a indicação do passo;
  • o que podia ter ficado melhor e porquê;
  • o que aprendemos: ou seja o que não sabíamos e ficámos a saber!
7. Outros tópicos que achar relevantes;


Nota importante

Como foi referido anteriormente, a apresentação da memoria descritiva deve ser apresentada por tópicos.
Esses tópicos devem ter um aspeto gráfico cuidado, onde a fonte (tipo de letra),o seu tamanho e as cores utilizadas devem ser escolhidas criteriosamente. 
Se tiver duvidas sobre as escolhas de cores lembre-se da técnica KISS: fundo branco, texto a negro e cabeçalhos a vermelho. Resulta sempre!



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