Infografias e timelines

A Piramide da Aprendizagem

Publicado a 13/12/2018, 08:01 por Luis Pitta ‎[org]‎   [ atualizado a 13/12/2018, 08:03 ]

A Piramide da Aprendizagem apresenta valores de retenção da materia em função do tipo de aula/estudo:

Historia dos computadores

Publicado a 17/11/2016, 08:23 por Luis Pitta ‎[org]‎   [ atualizado a 17/11/2016, 08:25 ]

Retirado do site: em março 2016


2400 BC

 the first known calculator, the abacus, was invented in Babylonia

500 BC

 the Indian Mathematician introduces the forerunner to modern formal language theory

300 BC

 invents the binary number system

87 BC

Antikythera Mechanism:
 Built in Rhodes to track movement of the stars

60 AD

Heron of Alexandria:
 invents machines which are able to follow a series of instructions


Liang Ling-Can:
 invents the first fully mechanical clock


Leonardo da Vinci:
 Drawings by Leonardo da Vinci depict inventions such as flying machines, including a helicopter, the first mechanical calculator and one of the first programmable robots


John Napier:
 invents a system of moveable rods (Napier's Rods) based on logarithms which were able to multiply, divide and calculate square and cube roots


William Oughtred:
 develops the slide rule (it was circular in shape)


Calculating Clock:
  is invented by Wilhelm Schickard


Blaise Pascal:
 invents the the "Pascaline", a mechanical adding machine


Gottfried Leibniz:
 becomes known as one of the founding fathers of calculus


Joseph-Marie Jacquard:
 invents an automatic loom controlled by punched cards


 The Arithmometer was the first mass-produced calculator invented by Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar


Charles Babbage: 
designs his first mechanical computer


Analytical Engine:
 The Analytical Engine was invented by Charles Babbage


Morse code:
 is invented by Samuel Morse


Boolean algebra:
 is devised by George Boole


Tabulating Machine:
 is invented by Per Georg Scheutz and his son Edvard


William Stanley Jevons:
 designs a practical logic machine


Ramon Verea:
 invents a fast calculator with an internal multiplication table


Alexander Graham Bell:
 invents the telephone called the Photophone


 The Comptometer which is operated by pressing keys is developed by Dorr E. Felt 


Herman Hollerith:
 invents a counting machine which has  increment mechanical counters


Guglielmo Marconi:
 develops radio signals


Tabulating Machine Company:
  is formed by Herman Hollerith which later becomes IBM


Nikola Tesla:
 invents the remote control


Lee De Forest:
 devises the first electronic tube


 IBM is formed on June 15, 1911


Philo Farnsworth:
 devises the first fuly electronic television


John Logie Baird:
  invents the Electro Mechanical television system

Walther Bothe:
 develops the logic gate


Vannevar Bush:
 develops a partly electronic Difference Engine (the precursor to the digital computer)


Kurt Godel:
  publishes a paper on the use of a universal formal language


Alan Turing:
 develops the concept of a theoretical computing machine


Konrad Zuse
:  creates the Z1 Computer a binary digital computer using punch tape


George Stibitz:
 develops the Complex Number Calculator - a foundation for digital computers

Hewlett Packard:
  William Hewlett and David Packard start their computer company

John Vincent Atanasoff and Clifford Berry: develop the  ABC (Atanasoft-Berry Computer) prototype


 Adolf Hitler uses the Enigma encryption machine

 Alan Turing develops the code-breaking machine Colossus


Howard Aiken & Grace Hopper:
 design the MARK series of computers at Harvard University


 John Presper Eckert & John W. Mauchly develop the ENIAC ( Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer)

Computer Bug:
 the term computer ‘bug’ is first used by Grace Hopper


F.C. Williams:
 develops his cathode-ray tube (CRT) storing device, the forerunner to  random-access memory (RAM)


Pilot ACE:
 Donald Watts Davies joins Alan Turing to build the fastest digital computer in England at the time, the Pilot ACE

William Shockley:
 invents the transistor at Bell Labs

Douglas Engelbart: theorises on interactive computing with keyboard and screen display instead of on punchcards


Andrew Donald Booth:
 invents magnetic drum memory

Frederic Calland Williams  & Tom Kilburn:
 develop the SSEM "Small Scale Experimental Machine" digital CRT storage which was soon nicknamed the "Baby"


Claude Shannon:
 builds the first machine that plays chess

Howard Aiken:
 develops the Harvard-MARK III


Hideo Yamachito:
 creates the  first electronic computer in Japan

Alan Turing: publishes his paper - Computing Machinery and Intelligence which helps create the Turing Test


  T. Raymond Thompson and  John Simmons develop the first business computer, the Lyons Electronic Office (LEO) at Lyons Co.
UNIVAC: UNIVAC I (UNIVersal Automatic Computer I) is introduced -  the first commercial computer made in the United States and designed principally by John Presper Eckert & John W. Mauchly

: The EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) begins performing basic tasks. Unlike the ENIAC, it was binary rather than decimal


The IBM 701 becomes available and a total of 19 are sold to the scientific community


John Backus & IBM:
 develop the FORTRAN Computer Programming Language


Bell Labs: introduces its first transistor computer



Optical fibre is invented by  Basil Hirschowitz, C. Wilbur Peters, and Lawrence E. Curtiss



Sputnik I and Sputnik II: are launched by the Russians




ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) and NASA is formed

Silicon chip:
 the first integrated circuit, or silicon chip, is produced by Jack Kilby & Robert Noyce



Paul Baran: theorises on the "survivability of communication systems under nuclear attack", digital technology and symbiosis between humans and machines



 the Common Business-Oriented Language (COBOL) programming language is invented




Unimate: General Motors puts the first industrial robot, Unimate, to work in a New Jersey factory




The first computer game:  the Spacewar Computer Game is created invented by Steve Russell & MIT




The Computer Mouse: Douglas Engelbart invents and patents the first computer mouse (nicknamed the mouse because the tail came out the end)

The American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) is developed to standardize data exchange among computers




Word processor: IBM introduces the first word processor

  John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz develop Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Language (BASIC)



Hypertext:  Andries van Dam and Ted Nelson coin the term "hypertext"




Floppy Disk: IBM creates the first floppy disk




Seymour Cray: develops the CDC 7600, the first supercomputer

Gary Starkweather:
 invents the laser printer whilst working with Xerox

ARPANET:  The U.S. Department of Defence sets up the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) with the intention of creating a computer network that can withstand any type of disaster. It becomes the first building block for what the internet is has become today



RAM: Intel introduces the world's first available dynamic RAM ( random-access memory) chip and the first microprocessor, the Intel 4004




E-mail: is invented by  Ray Tomlinson

Liquid Crystal Display ( LCD ):
is developed by  James Fergason

Pocket calculator: is invented by Sharp Corporation

Floppy Disk: is created by David Noble with IBM - Nicknamed the "Floppy" for its flexibility.



First Video Game: Atari releases Pong, the first commercial video game

The CD:
  the compact disc is invented in the United States.



Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs: creates the Ethernet, a local-area network (LAN) protocol

Personal computer:
 The minicomputer Xerox Alto (1973) was a landmark step in the development of personal computers

Gateways: Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn develop gateway routing computers to negotiate between the various national networks



SQL: IBM develops SEQUEL (Structured English Query Language ) now known as SQL

 Charles Simonyi coins the term WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) to describe the ability of being able to display a file or document exactly how it is going to be printed or viewed



Portable computers: The Altair 8800 is developed by Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems (MITS) and the first personal home computer is released on 23 Jan, 1975

Microsoft Corporation:
 is founded April 4, 1975 by Bill Gates and Paul Allen to develop and sell BASIC interpreters for the Altair 8800



Apple: Apple Computers is founded by Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs on 1 Apr 1976 (April Fools Day)




Apple Computer’s Apple II, the first personal computer with colour graphics, is demonstrated

 Ward Christensen writes the programme "MODEM" allowing two microcomputers to exchange files with each other over a phone line



Magnetic tape: The first magnetic tape is developed in the US




Over half a million computers are in use in the United States




Paul Allen and Bill Gates: IBM hires Paul Allen and Bill Gates to create an operating system for a new PC. They buy the rights to a simple operating system manufactured by Seattle Computer Products and use it as a template to develop DOS




Microsoft: MS-DOS Computer Operating System increases its success




WordPerfect: the WordPerfect Corporation introduces WordPerfect 1.0 a word processing program

Commodore 64:
  becomes the best-selling computer of all time. 

SMTP: SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) is introduced for the first time



More than 10 million computers are in use in the United States

Domain Name System (DNS):
 is pioneered by Jon Postel, Paul Mockapetris and Craig Partridge. Seven 'top-level' domain names are initially introduced: edu, com, gov, mil, net, org and int.

Microsoft Windows: is introduced eliminating the need for a user to have to type each command, like MS-DOS, by using a mouse to navigate through drop-down menus, tabs and icons



Apple Macintosh: Apple introduces the Macintosh with mouse and window interface on 24 Jan, 1984

 William Gibson coins the word cyberspace when he publishes Neuromancer

Dell Computer is founded in Austin Texas on 3 May, 1984



Paul Brainard introduces Pagemaker for the Macintosh creating the desktop publishing field

Nintendo: The Nintendo Entertainment System makes its debut.


Microsoft Windows 1.0 is introduced on 19 Nov, 1985 and is initially sold for $100.00




More than 30 million computers are in use in the United States.




Microsoft introduces Microsoft Works
Perl: Larry Wall introduces Perl 1.0




Over 45 million PCs are in use in the United States.




The Internet, World Wide Web & Tim Berners-Lee:  Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau propose a 'hypertext' system starting the modern Internet

Microsoft and IBM 
stop working together to develop operating systems

The World: the first commercial Internet dial-up access provider comes online on 20 Sep, 1990



The World Wide Web is launched to the public on August 6, 1991




At the beginning of the year only 50 World Wide Web servers are known to exist


Microsoft releases Windows 3.0 on 20 Sep, 1990




The World Wide Web Consortium is founded by Tim Berners-Lee to help with the development of common protocols for the evolution of the World Wide Web

 is created in April, 1994.



Java is introduced

: is founded by Jeff Bezos on 20 Sep, 1995

EBay is founded by Pierre Omidyar on 20 Sep,1995

Hotmail is started by Jack Smith and Sabeer Bhatia on 20 Sep, 1995



WebTV: s introduced for the first time


The DVD Video format is  first introduced by Toshiba in Japan in November, 1996


 introduces its free online translator Babel Fish

Microsoft acquires Hotmail




Google: Google is founded by Sergey Brin and Larry Page on September 7, 1998

 is founded by Peter Thiel and Max Levchin

Apple Power Book G3 is released on 20 Sep, 1998



Xbox: Bill Gates introduces the Xbox on 7 Jan, 2001


Windows XP: is launched on 20 Sep, 2001




Approximately 1 billion PCs have been sold

 is acquired by eBay



iTunes is launched on 9 Jan, 2003


Skype is launched on 20 Aug, 2003




Facebook is first launched on 20 Sep, 2004


Firefox 1.0 is released on 9 Nov, 2004


Blizzard's World of Warcraft game, the most popular and successful MMORPGis released 23 Nov, 2004




The blu-ray is first announced and introduced on 4 Jan, 2006.


YouTube begins on 14 Feb, 2005


Xbox360 is released on 20 Feb, 2005


eBay acquires Skpe on September 12, 2005




iPhone: the first iPhone is released on 29 Jun, 2006


SCE releases Play Station 3 on 11 Nov, 2006


Nintendo releases Wii on 19 Nov, 2006




Windows Vista is released 30 Jan, 2007


Netbook: Asus released first Eee PC (netbook) on 16 Oct, 2007




First Android OS and Android Smartphone is released on 21 Oct, 2008




Windows 7 is released on 22 Oct, 2009




The iPad is released on 3 Apr, 2010




Microsoft exceeds $1 billion in sales and becomes the first company to do so



Apple introduces the iPhone 5

Microsoft Windows 8 and Microsoft Surface is released October 26, 2012


Apple introduces the iPad mini October 23, 2012


The number of smart phones worldwide reaches 1 billion


Apple introduces iOS7 on September 18, 2013

Microsoft releases Windows 8.1 on October 18, 2013

Sony releases the PS4 November 15, 2013

 Apple outsells Windows PCs globally for the first time


The Nokia deal with Microsoft is completed April 25 making Nokia now Microsoft Mobile in a deal totalling $7.17 billion

Apple introduces the new iPhone 6, iPhone 6 Plus, and Apple Watch on September 9

Microsoft announces on September 30 the next version of Windows, which will be called Windows 10

Android version 5.0 (Lollipop) released November 3


Apple officially releases the Apple Watch on April 24

Microsoft releases Windows 10 on July 29

Android version 6.0 (Marshmallow) released October 5

Microsoft releases the Surface Book on October 26

Linhas de tempo (timelines)

Publicado a 26/01/2016, 01:18 por Luis Pitta ‎[org]‎   [ atualizado a 21/05/2018, 00:24 ]

Software de criação de timelines

A criação de linhas de tempo (timelines) permite visualizar um pedaço de historia de uma forma mais interactiva.
Há diversas aplicações que permitem "desenhar"  linhas de tempo (timelines).
Ver exemplo de linha de tempo sobre o melhor de Beethoven, feita no TimeToast:


Publicado a 26/01/2016, 01:13 por Luis Pitta ‎[org]‎

Podemos usar o Thinglink para trabalhar interactivamente com imagens e vídeos.

Visualização de dados (data visualization)

Publicado a 05/05/2015, 03:42 por Luis Pitta ‎[org]‎   [ atualizado a 05/05/2015, 03:44 ]

Um bom artigo:

TED Talk: Hans Rosling: Stats that reshape your world-view

Tabelas apelativas: Menos é mais!

Publicado a 05/05/2015, 03:41 por Luis Pitta ‎[org]‎   [ atualizado a 10/04/2018, 13:43 ]

"Material Design": O que é?

Publicado a 09/04/2015, 07:12 por Luis Pitta ‎[org]‎   [ atualizado a 13/12/2018, 08:41 ]

Trata-se de uma nova linguagem de design gráfico desenvolvida pela Google e apresentada em Junho de 2014.

Este conceito está presente nas novas apps Android como o GmailYouTubeGoogle DriveGoogle Docs, Sheets and SlidesGoogle MapsInbox, etc.

Este linguagem gráfica tira partido de um ambiente com linhas e grelhas simples, animações e transições inteligentes, espaçamentos e efeitos de profundidade baseados em luz e sombras.

Infografos: Primeiros passos (EN)

Publicado a 16/01/2015, 02:26 por Luis Pitta ‎[org]‎   [ atualizado a 30/05/2015, 05:39 ]

Aprender infografia

Publicado a 16/01/2015, 02:21 por Luis Pitta ‎[org]‎

O que é um infográfico?

Publicado a 16/01/2015, 02:15 por Luis Pitta ‎[org]‎   [ atualizado a 16/01/2015, 02:19 ]

Conheça o que é um infográfico e também a história da infografia. Sabia que os mapas também são infográficos?

Um infográfico, ou a arte da infografia, é caracterizado por ilustrações explicativas sobre um tema ou assunto. Infográfico é a junção das palavras info (informação) e gráfico (desenho, imagem, representação visual), ou seja, um infográfico é um desenho ou imagem que, com o auxilio de um texto, explica ou informa sobre um assunto que não seria muito bem compreendido somente com um texto. Os infográficos são muito utilizados em jornais, mapas, manuais técnicos, educativos e científicos, e também em sites. 

Outra definição para infográfico mostra o quanto esse formato se adequa perfeitamente à educação:

Tudo deve ser explicado, esclarecido e detalhado - de forma concisa e exata, numa linguagem tanto coloquial e direta quanto possível [...] O didatismo deve estender-se também à disposição visual do que é editado. [...] A apreensão pelo leitor deve ser fácil, clara e rápida. [...] A rigor, tudo o que puder ser dito sob a forma de quadro, mapa, gráfico ou tabela não deve ser dito sob a forma de texto. (SILVA, 2005 apud TEIXEIRA, 2011, p. 25).

Como o objetivo do infográfico é buscar de uma forma fácil e clara de expor uma informação, com o avanço da tecnologia o áudio e o vídeo foram adicionados aos infográficos criando infográficos interativos.

Fonte: iG Infográficos

Origem da Infografia

A infografia tem suas raízes fixadas na pré-história. Os mapas são os primeiros vestígios de um infográfico criado, e foram criados milênios antes da escrita. O mapa mais antigo que se conhece, foi encontrado na Turquia, Çatal Hüyük exatamente, e foi datado há cerca de 6.200 anos a.C., eles foram encontrados pintados numa parede da cidade (que por acaso é muito antiga).

Em 1626, Christoph Scheiner publicou um livro chamado de Rosa Ursina sive Sol, que continha uma grande variedade de gráficos. Estes gráficos continham dados que relatam os resultados obtidos através de sua pesquisa astronômica sobre o sol. Christoph usou uma série de imagens para explicar o tempo de rotação do sol, através de manchas solares. O livro era cheio de infográficos.

Leonardo Da Vinci, entre 1510 e 1513, estudou sobre os fetos resultando em obras que podem ser considerados como infografias de uma imensa complexidade. Da Vinci tentou entender o fenômeno e descreve-lo em detalhe extremo, isso sem enfatizar ou explicações teóricas. No decorrer de sua vida, Da Vinci planejou uma enciclopédia que era baseada em desenhos que detalhavam basicamente tudo. Ele realizou autopsias e elaborou desenhos anatômicos extremamente detalhados, tendo planejado um trabalho sobre o corpor humano, que era de anatomia comparativa.

Infográfico de Da Vcinci

Evolução da Infografia

A partir do século XIX, com o avanço da tecnologia de impressão, o uso de imagens e fotografias em jornais acaba se tornando mais fácil. Já na década de 1920, as novas tecnologias permitiram o envio de imagens por cabo ou por antenas, e logo em 1960 o uso de satélites permitia que fatos ocorridos no mesmo dia, porém, em locais distantes fossem informados rapidamente. O que de fato teve uma influência maior no uso dos infográficos foi à possibilidade de digitalização de dados em 1980.

Durante a Guerra do Golfo (1990) a visibilidade dos infográficos aumentou que pela falta de fotografias o uso de expressões gráficas foi à saída. O uso de interfaces gráficas que houve com a chegada do Windows 95 e o Macintosh aumentaram consideravelmente as possiblidades do uso do material visual em jornais.

Então, com a possibilidade do uso de interfaces gráficas para a criação de sites, unindo os recursos de mídia e visuais disponíveis, a infografia se tornou sem dúvidas a melhor maneira de tratar informações. Por volta de 1995, com o surgimento de programas capazes de tratar o desenho vetorial, o uso da infografia se consagrou como um dos melhores modos de expressar uma informação.

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